Presbyterian Archives Research Centre

Photo Gallery No 14 :

"New Zealand at War : 1914-1918" (Page Four)


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The Bombing of Germany 1917 - 1918

A large railway station [Hauptbahnhof] in Germany showing clear evidence (when magnified) of heavy damage to the roof near the apex and to the left hand side as well as the upper glass windows on the frontage. Unfortunately we are unable to establish which station this is and would be grateful for any assistance.

Whilst London was subjected to bombing by German Zeppelin airships it appears to be a less well known fact that from 1917 the Allies also dropped bombs on Germany, primarily using the new Handley-Page bombers. Around 140 cities and / or military targets around the Saar, Moselle and Rhine Valleys were targeted, suffering differing degrees of damage. A report published after the war by the United States recorded a German death toll of 641 with 1262 wounded from 66 out of the total 140 bombing raids. The report, however, clearly justified the financial and material worth of the bombing campaign.

(Rev LH Ker Collection, Ref A-S21-109)



Bombed Railway Station, Germany



Opera House, Paris, 1919


Post War Paris - The Opera House :

Taken by Gunner Claude Moore prior to returning to England, 23 March 1919. (Moore Collection - scanned from the orginal negative).

Under the Treaty of Versailles signed in June 1919, the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, which had been annexed by Germany in the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-71, were restored to France but additionally, crippling financial and material reparations were imposed on Germany.

Tuileries Gardens, Paris :

Gunner Claude Moore captured for posterity these Parisians strolling through the Jardin des Tuileries not far from the Louvre on a post-war early Spring day in March 1919. (Moore Collection - scanned from the orginal negative).


Tuileries Garden, Paris,1919



"The General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church of New Zealand desires to extend to his Majesty the King an expression of its profound loyalty to his person, to the ancient throne of Britain, and to the Empires of whose unity the throne is an enduring symbol…Deploring the war and condemning war in itself, and believing that the only hope of its final elimination is through the diffusion of the spirit of Christ and the recognition of His authority over the nations, the Assembly is nevertheless aware that this war must be waged with inflexible determination, and that meantime there can be no real or stable peace unless the military power of the Central Empires is shattered, or the Germanic people themselves realise that their aggression and terrorism brought them nothing but disaster and the moral condemnation of the whole intelligent world." - Resolution of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church of New Zealand, Nov 1917



New Zealand Troops, Victory March of Troops Through London, 3rd May 1919


Victory March through London, 3rd May 1919 :

The New Zealand Artillery Regiment leading the NZ troops through New Oxford Street during the Victory March through London, 3rd May 1919. (Moore Collection - scanned from the original negative).

Victory March through London, 3rd May 1919 :

Horse drawn cannon passing along New Oxford Street during the Victory March through London, 3rd May 1919. (Moore Collection - scanned from the original negative).


Horse Drawn Cannon during Victory March of Troops Through London, 3rd May 1919



"…It is well to remember what ANZAC Day stands for; it represents the beginning of a great defeat, but a defeat which was greater than a victory. ANZAC Day stands for blunders and mistakes, which cost the lives of thousands of men and the loss of many ships; but it showed heroism, a gallantry, and a courage which will ever remain in the annals of men" -   "The Outlook" Editorial April 1918



Regimental Colours during Victory March of Troops Through London, 3rd May 1919


Victory March through London, 3rd May 1919 :

The Regimental "Colours", taken during the Victory March through London, 3rd May 1919. The Victory March was a massive success. Nearly 15,000 troops took part in the march, led by the victorious Allied commanders, passing Edwin Lutyens new Cenotaph War Memorial in the Mall along the way. (Moore Collection)

"Souvenir of the Peace Celebrations" :

The allegorically themed front cover of the Presbytery of Dunedin's Order of Service for the Presbyterian Sabbath Schools Peace celebrations, 20th July 1919. (Presbytery of Dunedin Collection)


Dunedin Presbytery Souvenir of the Peace Celebrations, 1919



Dunedin Presbytery Souvenir of the Peace Celebrations, 1919


"Souvenir of the Peace Celebrations - Order of Service" :

And the colourful service sheet with scrolling lettering at the sides reading "Thanks be to God who giveth us this Victory". The service ended with the singing of the New Zealand National Anthem. (Presbytery of Dunedin Collection)


"If permanent peace and the future government of the world is to be the work of the people, for the people and by the people… the point needs no stressing that the democratic or socialistic impulse which is gathering strength for its gigantic task is foredoomed to failure unless it is instinct [sic] with the principles of Christianity as formulated by Christ himself." -  "The Outlook" Editorial Oct 1918


The unveiling of the Tapuhi War Memorial in Northland by Major McCarroll and Colonel Steadman, 1920. The service at the unveiling was conducted by the Rev William Holloway. "This was the monument erected by the settlers in memory of the boys who gave their lives in The Great War. There were 11 killed from this little settlement". (Rev W Holloway - Home Missions Committee Collection)

The monument features cannonballs mounted on each of the 8 concrete pillars - these cannonballs had been used at the nearby seige and eventual battle of Ruapekapeka between more than 1,000 British troops and over 400 members of the Nga Puhi tribe in late December 1845.


Unveiling of the Tapuhi War Memorial, 1920



Unveiling of the Tapuhi War Memorial, 1920


Mayor McCarroll standing in front of the Tapuhi War Memorial after its unveiling, 1920. (Rev W Holloway - Home Missions Committee Collection)

This still well kept marble obelisk can be found by driving east of State Highway 1 at Hukerenui down Tapuhi Road, then turning into Monument Road.

There are very few towns in New Zealand that do not possess a Great War memorial displayed in a prominent place. The New Zealand Memorials Register lists almost 500 civic memorials throughout the country. Of the 103,000 young New Zealanders who served overseas during the 'Great War', some 18,500 made the ultimate sacrifice with 50,000 wounded.


"The signing of the armistice by Germany, which virtually amounts to complete capitulation, will mean the ending of hostilities and the cessation of the sacrifice of human life. Much more than that, it should spell the drawing up of the curtain upon a wonderful drama, the denouement of which has been long since prophesied :- "…And many people shall go and say, Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob; and we will walk in his paths; for out of Zion shall go forth the law and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem. And he shall judge among the nations and shall rebuke many people; and they shall beat their swords into ploughshares and their spears into pruninghooks; nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more." -   "The Outlook" Editorial November 1918


The War in Personal Terms :

As an aid to assisting with rehabilitation and welfare as well as keeping a permanent record of their sacrifice, the First Church of Otago Dunedin Soldiers' Committee compiled this book in 1920 containing the names of 222 Soldiers and Nurses from within their Parish who had served in the forces, both in New Zealand and overseas.

Of the eight names on this page :

- Gilbert MacLean was invalided home from Camp.
- Sister A. MacLean returned safely from medical service in France.
- Sergt.WG McGregor was wounded twice.
- Robert Munn and Private Hugh McVicar were killed at Gallipoli.
- Trooper Roy Milne was wounded.
- George Mondy died on the Somme.
- Private RD Morrison died of Influenza just 9 months after his return home with a war injury.


First Church Dunedin World War One Roll Book 1914-1918



New Zealand Presbyterian Young Men's Bible Class Bible Class Shield 1914-1918


The NZ Bible Class Union Otago District Memorial Shield :

The NZ Presbyterian Young Mens Bible Class Union Otago District Junior Rugby Memorial Shield "In Memory of Our Bible Class Members who have Given their Lives during the Great War 1914-1919". The shield now resides on public display in the First Church of Otago Heritage Centre in Dunedin.

The"Roll of Honour" for those members of the First Church of Otago Young Men's Bible Class in Dunedin who served overseas during 1914-1918, including those who gave the ultimate sacrifice being marked with a small cross next to their names.


First Church Dunedin Young Men's Bible Class Roll of Honour 1914-1918



Admiral Jellicoe's Card, 1921



Admiral & Lady Jellicoe's Tribute to "The Glorious Dead" :

Wyndham Presbyterian Church in Southland commissioned a marble memorial containing 31 names to commemorate those from the parish who had been killed in action, died of wounds or of sickness, either here or in New Zealand, and also a Roll of Honour commemorating 96 local church members and adherents who had served overseas. His Excellency, the Governor General of New Zealand Viscount Jellicoe, along with Viscountess Jellicoe and their daughter Lucy, graciously consented to personally attend the unveiling on the 31st July 1921, their card accompanying the vice-regal floral tribute being permanently placed in the front of the Wyndham Parish Session Minute Book.

Note the reference to "HMS New Zealand". In 1919, Admiral Jellicoe took a Royal Navy fleet on a tour of the Dominions to give a report on their defences, and chose "HMS New Zealand" as his flagship. The battlecruiser proved particularly popular in New Zealand where crowds flocked to visit her. It was estimated more than a third of the country’s population went aboard during her eleven week visit. Jellicoe was popular too, later returning to New Zealand as Governor General from 1920 to 1924.


The striking Kaikorai Presbyterian Church Dunedin "Great War" memorial stained glass window, perpetuating the theme of the 'Holy War', the two soldiers represented as Crusading Knights.

Of the 65 Church members on the Kaikorai Presbyterian Church "Great War" Roll of Honour, no less than 22 made the supreme sacrifice for King and Country.


Kaikorai Presbyterian Church Memorial Window, Dunedin, 1914-1918



Roslyn Church Memorial Window, Dunedin, 1914-1918


The equally moving two central sections of the Roslyn Presbyterian Church Dunedin "Great War" memorial window which is formed of an impressive four individual windows in total.

The theme is that of a young helmeted soldier in uniform offering himself at the feet of the Master, the inscription reading, "On holy mountains out of the lap of the dawn, the dew of Thy young soldiery offers itself to Thee". Of the 119 Church members on the Roslyn Presbyterian Church "Great War" Roll of Honour, 19 made the supreme sacrifice for King and Country, being commemorated by an attractive marble slab placed beneath the window.


Never to be Forgotten :

The handsome St James Presbyterian Church South Dunedin Communion Table incorporates their memorial to those Parishioners who fell in the "Great War". The memorial plaque forms a focal and central part of the oak Table. Of the 85 Church members on the their "Great War" Roll of Honour, 25 made the supreme sacrifice for King and Country.

The war placed a great strain on their Minister, the Rev Robert Fairmaid, being entrusted with the task of visiting homes to break the news of casualties and ministering to grieving families :"There are probably 100 homes on 'the Flat' to which he carried news of death or disaster, and his own boys were in the thick of it. What all that meant cannot be reckoned. It meant very much to the people but he always pointed them to the source of all comfort and consolation. To himself, it was a valley of weeping, and no one can go through such a valley without leaving a part of his life."

The Rev Fairmaid had also been appointed as one of a team of four Ministers to regularly visit upwards of 2,000 soldiers suffering from infectious diseases who were held in the Isolation Hospital on Quarantine Island in Otago Harbour.



South Dunedin Memorial Communion Table 1914-1918



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